Celestia stands as a modular blockchain network, aiming to construct a scalable layer for data availability, thereby facilitating the development of the succeeding wave of scalable blockchain structures - modular blockchains. The scalability of Celestia is achieved by segregating execution from consensus and introducing an innovative primitive, known as data availability sampling.
The first aspect implies that the primary responsibility of Celestia revolves around sequencing transactions and ensuring their data availability, akin to simplifying consensus to atomic broadcast.
The second aspect offers an effective resolution to the data availability dilemma by mandating resource-constrained light nodes to assess a minimal number of random chunks from each block, verifying data availability.
Notably, as more light nodes engage in sampling, the network's capacity to securely manage data amplifies, allowing for an enhancement in block size without a proportional escalation in chain verification cost.